Combustible Dust is....
The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) identified 281 combustible dust incidents between 1980 and 2005 that led to the deaths of 119 workers, injured 718, and extensively damaged numerous industrial facilities. (For More Information: https://www.osha.gov/dsg/combustibledust/)
Examples of combustible materials in manufacturing: food (candy, sugar, spice, starch, flour, feed), grain, tobacco, plastics, wood, paper, pulp, rubber, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, coal, metals (e.g., aluminum, chromium, iron, magnesium, and zinc)
Dust Explosion Pentagon- oxygen, heat, fuel, dispersion, and confinement
Secondary Explosions occur when “fugitive dust” has been dislodged, typically from a primary explosion incident. Often the additional dust dispersed into the air may cause one or more secondary explosions and can be far more destructive than a primary explosion due to the increased quantity and concentration of dispersed combustible dust. Many deaths and extensive damages to facilities have been linked to secondary explosions.
Person Protective Equipment & Requirements
By Christina Keyes, Keyes To Safety LLC
OSHA requires the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls cannot provide protection by reducing exposure(s) to permissible limits. Employers must determine if PPE should be used to protect their workers by completing a Job Hazard Analysis. PPE programs must be implemented addressing standard PPE requirements along with special situation requirements.
PPE that may be required:
To maintain quality of PPE:
.....Is the Control of Hazardous Energy, (29 CFR 1910.147) which is the practices and procedures necessary to disable machinery or equipment, thereby preventing the release of hazardous energy while employees perform servicing and maintenance activities.
Hazardous energies are: electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, and other energy sources.
29 CFR 1910.333 lists the specific requirements to protect employees working on electric circuits and equipment. This section requires workers to use safe work practices when employees are exposed to electrical hazards while working on, near, or with conductors or systems that use electric energy.
Why is controlling hazardous energy sources important?
Each employer has the flexibility to develop an energy control program suited to the needs of the particular workplace and the types of machines and equipment being maintained or serviced.
■ Develop, implement, and enforce an energy control program.
■ Use lockout devices for equipment that can be locked out. Tagout devices may be used in lieu of lockout devices only if the tagout program provides employee protection equivalent to that provided through a lockout program.
■ Ensure that new or overhauled equipment is capable of being locked out.
■ Develop, implement, and enforce an effective tagout program if machines or equipment are not capable of being locked out.
■ Develop, document, implement, and enforce energy control procedures.
■ Use only lockout/tagout devices authorized for the particular equipment or machinery and ensure that they are durable, standardized, and substantial.
■ Ensure that lockout/tagout devices identify the individual users.
■ Establish a policy that permits only the employee who applied a lockout/tagout device to remove it.
■ Inspect energy control procedures at least annually.
■ Provide effective training as mandated for all employees covered by the standard.
■ Comply with the additional energy control provisions in OSHA standards when machines or equipment must be tested or repositioned, when outside contractors work at the site, in group lockout situations, and during shift or personnel changes.
Sequence of Lockout
(1) Notify all affected employees that servicing or maintenance is required on a machine or equipment and that the machine or equipment must be shut down and locked out to perform the servicing or maintenance.
(2) The authorized employee shall refer to the company procedure to identify the type and magnitude of the energy that the machine or equipment utilizes, shall understand the hazards of the energy, and shall know the methods to control the energy.
(3) If the machine or equipment is operating, shut it down by the normal stopping procedure (depress the stop button, open switch, close valve, etc.).
(4) De-activate the energy isolating device(s) so that the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source(s).
(5) Lock out the energy isolating device(s) with assigned individual lock(s).
(6) Stored or residual energy (such as that in capacitors, springs, elevated machine members, rotating flywheels, hydraulic systems, and air, gas, steam, or water pressure, etc.) must be dissipated or restrained by methods such as grounding, repositioning, blocking, bleeding down, etc.
(7) Ensure that the equipment is disconnected from the energy source(s) by first checking that no personnel are exposed, then verify the isolation of the equipment by operating the push button or other normal operating control(s) or by testing to make certain the equipment will not operate.
(8) The machine or equipment is now locked
Restoring Equipment to Service
When the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or equipment is ready to return to normal operating condition, the following steps shall be taken.
(1) Check the machine or equipment and the immediate area around the machine to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that the machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(2) Check the work area to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed from the area.
(3) Verify that the controls are in neutral.
(4) Remove the lockout devices and reenergize the machine or equipment.
Note: The removal of some forms of blocking may require re-energization of the machine before safe removal.
(5) Notify affected employees that the servicing or maintenance is completed and the machine or equipment is ready for use.
*For more information and statistics refer to website www.osha.gov
Slips, Trips, and Falls typically makes the annual list of work place related incidents. I have put together a causes and prevention list as a reference. Please take notes and pass on as needed!
-Christina, KTS Safety Consultant
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), slips, trips and falls accounted for
15.8% of all fatal occupational injuries in 2013
By Christina Keyes
Risk Management is the process of identifying, assessing, responding to, monitoring and controlling, and reporting risks. Creating a Risk Management Plan is necessary for maintaining a safe working environment for your employees and it also helps ensure success long-term. Identifying risks applies to all areas, not just safety. The Risk Management plan outlines activities and how they will be performed, recorded, and monitored.
Procedures for creating a Project Risk Management Plan:
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
The Risk Management Team typically consists of: Facility Representative, Risk Manager or Project Manager, an Integrated Project Team, Risk Owner(s), and Other Key Stakeholders. Each position is equally important with key roles in the development and completion of the project.
Risk identification will involve the project team and stakeholders; and will include an evaluation of environmental factors, organizational culture and the project management plan. Key elements reviewed are project deliverables, assumptions, constraints, cost/effort estimates, resource plan, and other key project documents. Methods used to assist in the identification of risks are brainstorming, interviewing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, diagramming, etc A Risk Management Log will be generated and updated as needed.
All risks identified will be assessed to identify the range of possible project outcomes. Risks will be prioritized by their level of importance. Qualitative Risk Analysis shows the probability and impact of occurrence for each identified risk. Risks that fall within the RED and YELLOW zones, Quantitative Risks, will have risk response plan which may include both a risk response strategy and a risk contingency plan.
RISK RESPONSE PLANNING
Each major risk (those falling in the Red & Yellow zones) will be assigned to a risk owner for monitoring and controlling purposes to ensure that the risk will not “fall through the cracks”.
For each major risk, one of the following approaches will be selected to remediate the risk:
• Avoid – Eliminate the threat or condition
• Mitigate –reduce the probability or the impact
• Accept – Nothing will be done
• Contingency –Define actions to be taken in response
• Transfer – Shift the consequence of a risk to a third party (buy insurance, outsourcing, etc.)
For each risk that will be mitigated, the project team will identify ways to prevent the risk from occurring or reduce its impact. This may include prototyping, adding tasks to the project schedule, adding resources, etc. Any secondary risks that result from mitigation will be documented.
RISK MONITORING, CONTROLLING, AND REPORTING
The level of risk on a project will be tracked, monitored and controlled and reported
RISK CONTINGENCY BUDGETING
A risk contingency budget can be established to prepare in advance for the possibility that some risks will not be managed, this allows for funding availability to keep your project from going over budget.
CLOSING A RISK
A risk will be considered closed when it meets the criteria identified in the Risk Management Plan. All avenues have been accounted, risks that have been accepted have been mitigated and planned for accordingly. Authority to close the risk must be decided at the time of creating the Risk Management Plan.
Bloodborne Pathogens, Rights & Responsibilities
OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) as amended pursuant to the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act of 2000, prescribes safeguards to protect workers against the health hazards caused by bloodborne pathogens. Its requirements address items such as exposure control plans, universal precautions, engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, housekeeping, laboratories, hepatitis B vaccination, post-exposure follow-up, hazard communication and training, and recordkeeping. The standard places requirements on employers whose workers can be reasonably anticipated to contact blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM), such as unfixed human tissues and certain body fluids.
Bloodborne Pathogen: germs in the blood that can make people sick
Additional Symptoms & Long-Term Effects
Hepatitis B Virus/Hepatitis C Virus
Bloodborne Pathogens can enter the body and make a person sick by
American Heart Association recommendation for exposure, Make a P.A.C.T.
Protect yourself from blood or blood-containing materials
Act quickly and safely
Clean the area that has blood or blood-containing materials
Tell your supervisor about the incident
*Always remember Scene Safety, do not put yourself in harm’s way.
Equipment in operation, electrical exposure, chemical exposure, slick surfaces, etc.
Universal Precautions = PPE
A person cannot look at blood and determine that there is a bloodborne pathogen, the use of Universal Precautions can minimize exposure.
Spill Containment and Reporting:
Disposal of Contaminants:
Summer is here in Southern Idaho and so are record temperatures. Exposure to this extreme heat can result in occupational injuries or illnesses. Heat stress can result in heat rashes, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. These temperatures can also increase the risk of injuries in workers as it may result in safety glasses becoming foggy, slippery hands from sweating, dehydration, and dizziness. There are higher risk factors for workers who are 65 years of age or older, are overweight, have heart disease or high blood pressure, many other health complications, and some medications may increase sensitivity to higher temperatures.
Adequate training in the recognition and prevention of Heat Stress is vital to maintaining the Health & Safety of your company. Prevention should include:
by Christina Keyes, Keyes To Safety LLC
-Required for employers to implement a Hearing Conservation Program where workers are exposed to a time weighted aver
age noise level of 85 dBA or higher over an 8 hour work shift, for general industry.
-Noise may be a problem in your workplace if you hear ringing or humming in your ears when you leave work, you have to
shout to be heard by a coworker at an arm's length away, or you experience temporary hearing loss when leaving work.
-Noise-related hearing loss has been listed as one of the most prevalent occupational health concerns in the United States
for more than 25 years. Thousands of workers every year suffer from preventable hearing loss due to high workplace nois
-Since 2004, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has reported that nearly 125,000 workers have suffered significant,
permanent hearing loss. In 2009 BLS reported more than 21,000 hearing loss cases.
-Exposure to high levels of noise can cause permanent hearing loss. Neither surgery nor a hearing aid can help correct
this type of hearing loss.
-Short term exposure to loud noise can also cause a temporary change in hearing (your ears may feel stuffed up) or a
ringing in your ears (tinnitus). These short-term problems may go away within a few minutes or hours after leaving the
noisy area. However, repeated exposures to loud noise can lead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing loss.
-Loud noise can also create physical and psychological stress, reduce productivity, interfere with communication and
concentration, and contribute to workplace accidents and injuries by making it difficult to hear warning signals.
-Noise-induced hearing loss limits your ability to hear high frequency sounds, understand speech, and seriously impairs
your ability to communicate. Can also lead to psychological and social isolation.
Industry standard set by NIOSH for maximum PEL of 85dBA for an 8 hour time limit
TABLE G-16 - PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURES (1)
Duration per day, hours | Sound level dBA, Slow
1 1/2 ................................ 102
1/2 ................................... 110
1/4 or less.......................... 115
When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each.
FYI....hearing loss is permanent, please protect yourself and raise awareness for others!
Most people take everyday activities for granted. Unfortunately every one of us will become too comfortable going about each day as if nothing ever changes....and that is when tragedy strikes. Whether it be a minor fender-bender or a workplace accident, it happens at some point to everyone.
As a Safety Auditor in the Industrial/Construction fields I have enacted a Behavioral Analysis Method that can apply to any and all situations. It is a simple method of evaluating how we are engaged in our environment. We all become preoccupied with life's trials so take a minute, breath, and assess your actions.
What is YOUR Behavioral State?
-Interactive w/ the Environment & Tasks
Are you in a state that can attribute to an Incident? Or are you putting yourself in "the line of fire?" Not always does this mean physical harm, but could you possibly forget to turn off the coffee pot or not look both ways at a railroad crossing? It may seem minor to be rushing because you are a few minutes late to work or complacent because the paperwork unnervingly redundant, but that is when mistakes happen.
Take a few minutes, think about your daily routine. What could happen that may have been preventable?
Recommended Preparedness Actions
Have you ever heard of national disaster preparation month? Yes, it's in September, but with a new year just getting started why wait until September to start your preparations. Between now and then there will be more rain, snow run off and potential severe weather that could cause serious damage and injuries. Below is a clip from an article posted by FEMA regarding their plan for 2015 preparedness suggestions.
Since the tragedy of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/FEMA has significantly increased the emphasis on educating individuals on how to prepare for disasters by using the national platform of the Ready campaign, grassroots outreach through local Citizen Corps Councils, and coordination with states, territories, tribes, local communities, and other partners across the country. The Ready.gov website serves as FEMA’s clearinghouse for personal preparedness information and organizes this information into four categories.
1. Be Informed: Know local/community risks and community systems and plans, participate in preparedness training, and practice response skills by participating in drills.
2. Make a Plan: Develop a household emergency plan and discuss it with household members.
3. Build a Kit: Set aside and maintain supplies one may need in disasters.
4. Get Involved: Find local opportunities to volunteer for community safety and disaster response and be a part of the community planning process.
In addition, FEMA works with all partners to promote mitigation measures to help reduce the impact of disasters on individuals and property.
March is also Redcross month, take the time to donate in some way, blood, time, products or money is always needed and the best time to get involved is when we're not in crisis!
Idaho Flood Preparation (Bureau of Homeland Security)
FEMA (Plan , Prepare, Mitigate)
Ready 2015 (online toolkits & information to prepare)